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建设项目投资的资金来源有哪些_互联网平台需要拥抱“公共精神”

五牛股权投资基金管理有限公司

    本文来自微信公众?#29275;篹oobserver,作者:吴晨(经济学人商业执行主编)。,在过去的五年里,全球互联网平台取得?#21496;?#22823;的进步。自2013年以来,Faang(Facebook、Amazon、Apple、Neifei、Google)和微软,即所谓的美国科技股巨头,与微软一起,贡献了标准普尔500公司总市值增长的37%。同期,中国企业市值上涨的28%左右来自阿里巴巴和腾讯这两家公司。,然而,自去年下半年以来,大毒牙的市值已经下跌了1.13万亿美元,Facebook的市值也比去年7月的峰值下跌了30%。对互联网平台经济发展模式的思考和?#25945;?#20063;有所增加。,巴德标签,互联网巨头被贴上了badd的标签。,BAADD是什么?,第一个是大的。在过去的几年里,全球互联网巨头发展迅速,成为富有和竞争对手的国家,而且由于网络效应,他们很可能成为业界的寡头,赢?#39029;?#20809;所有。,二是反竞争。随着人工智能和大数据的增强,高科技巨头们发现了2.0版的网络效应。他们可以通过从平台上洞察机会来建立自己的杀伤区。创新和创业的时间和空间可能会被大大?#39038;酢?#21512;并或压入许多新企业的命运之中。,第三个是上瘾。这也引发了人们的疑问,这些巨头是在向消费者提供廉价的甚至免费的服务,还是将消费者包装成产品并卖给广告商。两者之间的巨大差异也决定?#21496;?#20154;对?#31070;?#30340;态?#21462;?第?#27169;?#30772;?#24471;?#20027;。一个突出的例子就是Facebook在特朗普的“俄罗斯之门”事件中所扮演的角色。这也是过去20年互联网发展的共同反映——互联网是否有利于民间社会的发展,还是对民间社会带来了更多的危害?,我们面临的问题,从Badd的分析中,不难看出人们对互联网巨头有很多疑问。互联网平台经济面临的最大挑战不是增长问题,恰恰相反,正是因为他们致力于快速发展,而暴露出两大问题。,第一个问题是随着平台经济的兴起,移动互联网平台自然具?#26032;?#26029;?#38498;?#31454;争约束性。,首先,平台决定如何设计流程、如何执行事务、控制用户界面和用户体验,从而决定用户将获得什么信息。这也意味着平台和平台另一端的产品和服务提供商之间的议价能力越来越弱。,第二,数据经济平台具有自然垄断倾向。这些巨头不仅在市场上竞争,而?#20197;?#26469;越成为市场本身。平台已成为数字经济不可或缺的基础设施。平台?#31995;?#35768;多服务似乎都是免费的,但用户实际上在提交数据时付费——大数据成为平台服务的货币。现在互联网平台已经掌握了大量的数据,如个人行为数据、社会图表、定价信息、购买习惯?#21462;?#20363;如,Facebook不仅拥有世界?#29486;?#20016;富的个人数据,而且拥有最大的“社交图”——用户列表和用户连接。亚马逊的定价信息比其他任何公司都多,美国超过90%的在线搜索使用谷歌。,在收集海量数据的同时,平台也在搭建自己的围栏,挖掘数字鸿沟,圈出自己的大数据。以囤积大数据为核心竞争力的商?#30340;?#24335;可能对平台有利,但不一定对社会有利,因为它不利于整个社会分享使用大数据的红利。,第三,巨人们正在围绕自己的生态系统建立“扼杀区”。对于年轻的公司来说,生存可能非常困难。技术巨头可能会模仿这些初创企业并将其压垮,或者把它们带到自己?#30446;?#34955;里,提前消除威胁。由于亚马逊、Facebook和谷歌的主导地位,任何与消费者互联网相关的业务都被视为危险地带。一个典型的例?#37038;?#30701;视频社交网络软件SNAP,它拒绝了Facebook在2013年30亿美元的收购,然后克隆了SNAP的许多流行功能,阻碍了其发展。,如今,巨头们已经围绕各自的影响力范围进行了圈定,在搜索、社交?#25945;濉?#25968;字广告、电子商务、智能手机和智能扬声器、云计算等方面,巨头们已经基本完成了包围。过去,初创企业在开发新产品的过程中可能会领先几年,但现在初创企业的交货期只有6到12个月,那么现有企业就会很快赶上。,综上所述,这些点实际上强调了一个问题:平台数据量大,巨人搭建的平台已经成为数字经济时代不可或缺的基础设施。平台?#29273;?#28070;放在首位。他们有建立数字围栏的动机,但不一定有促进数据共享的动机。他们确实为消费者提供了更便宜更好的服务,但展望未来可能会抑制创新。,第二,互联网的公共属性遭?#35282;质础?互联网的最初理念是分权。二十年前,人们认为互联网可?#28304;?#36827;人们的互联互通,促进知识共享和传播,挖掘集体智慧,成为民间社会自我组织的平台。但现实的发展,特别是近几年来,已经走向了宣传的反面。主要表现在虚假新闻的泛滥、阶层化的加剧以及公民在消费者中的消失。,让我们?#26377;?#20551;新闻的扩散开始。,假新闻的问题一直存在,但是社会?#25945;?#21152;速了它的传播。2016年,俄罗斯利用Facebook传播虚假新闻影响美国大选,使更多人意识到虚假新闻的危害。然而,我们需要看到的是,广义的虚假新?#29275;?#21363;标题党、耸人听闻的新闻、混?#29486;?#34394;假信息的信息,目前有刷屏的风险。另一方面,传统?#25945;?#36234;来越被边缘化。这些巨头抢占了大量新的数字广告,如Facebook和谷歌,它们控制了美国三分之二的在线广告收入,而传统?#25945;?#36182;以生存的广告则大幅下降。在这?#26234;?#20917;下,由于提供信息的门槛降低,以及社交?#25945;?#24179;台为更多人提供了准确分发信息的工具,因此广义的虚假新闻可能会将坏钱从?#20204;?#20013;?#29486;摺?更为?#29616;?#30340;是,传统?#25945;?#30340;衰落正是互联网土著人成长的时代。年轻人更难确定信息的质量,而且他们不建立对权威来源的信任。他们的阅读习惯已经改变,他们更依赖社交?#25945;?#21644;搜索,他们更容?#36164;?#21040;个性化营销的影响。这与前几年老年人面临的数据鸿沟一样危险。,广义?#31995;?#34394;假新闻扩散?#37096;?#33021;加剧分层。圈化意味着每个人都愿意呆在自己的舒?#26159;?#19982;自己这样的人互动,并且没有机会或动机与来自不同国家的人交流。因此,整个社会的流动?#28304;?#22823;下降。,首先,由于传统?#25945;?#30340;衰落,传统?#25945;?#20316;为守门人的角色已经被淡化。每个人都可以有自己的信息分发渠道。更多的组织可以使用大数据和算法为消费者提供定制的信息。在“你需要知道的”和“你想知道的”之间,如果“你想知道的”是现成的,很多人会发现很难走出他们的舒?#26159;?#30740;究发现,即使在20世纪60年代的英国,人们也会选择符合他们文化偏见的电视节目。在数字经济时代,强化这?#21046;?#35265;的趋势得到了极大的加强。,其?#21361;?#30001;于缺乏共同的经验,定制使得协作变得越来越困难。合作的前提是了解他人和不同人的出发点。如果我们得到狭隘的信息,我们的?#21491;?#23601;会变得狭隘,狭隘的人很难在一起工作。,第三,虚拟替代是现实世界交互的一种新现象。无论是在线购买、购买还是虚拟通信,我们?#20960;?#23481;易获得在线满意度,代价是现实世界中人类互动机会的大幅减少。甚至一些专家也担心数字时代的土著人会退化,并逐渐失去与人们互动的能力。社交?#25945;?#32473;许多人留下了现实世界的?#20064;?#29978;至是恐惧,许多人不再理解人们在现实世界中是如何互动的。宅基地已成为一个全球性的话题。美国三分之一的30岁以?#31995;哪?#36731;人仍然和?#25913;?#20303;在一起,这是一个大问题,也是一个新的阶层。,互联网巨头对我们造成的最大威胁是,公民可能比消费者矮。在西方世界,这种矮化正在发生。商品和服务的营销和政治营销正变得越来越具有互操作性。?#30475;?#36873;举都是升级移动互联网工具的机会。其中最臭名昭著的是剑桥分析,它帮助特朗普使用Facebook的大量数据向特定人群分发定制信息。,商业营销是商品销售,而政治营销是政治家销售。在寻找潜在消费者和在政治上动摇人们之间没有本质的区别,但是影响是深远的。一方面,政?#35859;?#25104;为一场与旅?#25105;得?#26377;本?#26159;?#21035;的极客运动,失去其根本的严肃?#38498;?#20844;共属性;另一方面,公民将被弱化为消费者,他们参与公共讨论的能力将被削弱,他们对政治家的信?#35859;?#34987;大大削弱。,消费者已经取代了公民的角色,成为有影响力的卒子。最可怕的是,公众讨论已经被精确的市场营销所取代。社交?#25945;?#24050;经成为议?#35752;?#23450;者的一个成熟工具,每个人都可以使用。,我们不能忽视平台经济的“公共属性”。未来,巨人需要在平台的发展和平台的公共属性之间?#19994;?#19968;个平衡点,因为无论是消费者还是政府都不能坐视平台在没有任何监管的情况下成长。,如?#35859;?#20915;这个问题,巨人是否在20年内经历了另一个“希望-傲慢-衰败”的周期?希望是创?#20826;?#26399;的理想状态,但?#28304;?#26159;不切实际的,在商业上取得巨大成功后?#29273;?#20102;现实。,互联网发展的历史表明,依靠技术本身并不能解决技术给商业、社会和公民社会带来的一系列问题。但是,现在全球互联网巨头已经足够富有,足以成为敌人,如果他们能够开始?#37038;堋?#20844;共精神?#20445;?#20182;们可能会结束。尤其是当平台?#25214;?#25104;为数字经济中不可或缺的基础设施时,利益驱动是?#36824;?#30340;,平台需要一种公共精神。,这种公共精神体现在四个方面:,首先,我们应该致力于未来的创新和突破性的研发,而不仅仅是加强自身的竞争实力和未来的盈利能力研发。这种公共精神实际上存在于50年前的美国,无论是IBM还是AT。,其?#21361;?#25105;们应该致力于探索新的思路和创新来解决问题,而不是简单地提高解决现有问题的效率,这也是平台和大数据面临的挑战。大公?#31350;?#20197;更高效、更快地完?#19978;?#26377;工作,但不一定能更好地解决问题。例如,无论你是步行还是步行,你都可以更有效地解决旅游匹配问题,但是它还没有解决大城市的拥挤问题。,更重要的是,我们应该坚持开放共享互联网的精神,而不是建设美丽的数字花园。在数字经济的未来,我们必须共享大数据,鼓励创新。这需要巨头们?#19994;?#19968;种建立大数据共享和交易的方法,他们不应该害怕为未来的挑战者埋下种子。,最后,我们应该致力于社会资本和人力资本的最大化,而不仅仅是利润。互联网巨头的公共属?#38498;?#36830;?#37038;?#24615;?#39038;?#20204;能够更好地利用社会资本,培养人力资本。他们想去想常青基金会,不仅努力使自己的企?#20826;?#20026;百年?#31995;輳?#26356;要有更高的抱负——如?#38382;股?#20250;更美好。,未来还需要加?#32771;?#31649;。最重要的是为大数据的使用、交换和共享建立公开透明的规则。,首先,为了保护个人隐?#21073;?#25105;们需要注意数据的完整性。谁拥有数据,谁可以使用数据,在什么范围内可以共享多少数据,所有这些都需要讨论,然后制定开放和透明的规则。,监管机构需要努力建立大数据交换,帮助大数据确?#31995;?#21147;、价格和贸易,打破巨型数字花园的?#20064;?#24182;为初创企业提供公平竞争的环?#22330;?#26410;来人工智能的竞争主要是大数据的竞争。如果大数据能够在合规的前提下公开共享,将有助于打破数字经济时代巨头的垄断。,最后,要努力?#24179;?#24605;想市场建设。去年,?#24403;?#23572;奖得主罗默提出,人力资本和新思想是未来经济发展的动力。在数字经济时代,无形资产越来越重要,新观念是最重要的无形私有财产。构建开放多元的“意识形态市场?#20445;?#21487;?#28304;?#36827;无形资产的交流、合作和交易。它的作用是双重的:一方面鼓励开放创新,使来自不同领域、不同专业背景的思想观念相互碰撞、相互激励;另一方面鼓励保护无形资产产权,通过市场交易挖掘无形资产的价格。并通过交易给予无形资产创造者足够的激励。,巨人应该怎么做?我们今天需要的不仅是聪明的管理者,而且是有?#37117;?#30340;企业家。,由于平台是数字经济底层不可或缺的基础设施,它必须具有公共属性。具有?#37117;?#21331;识和责任感的大领导人负责参与和推动系统设计,以确保数字经济的长期发展,而不仅仅是保护短期利益模式。,他们可以为100年前?#24179;?#26102;代的巨人树立榜样。卡内基和他所代表的?#24179;?#26102;代的大亨最愿意捐钱给图书馆和大学。从本质上讲,这种方法有两个?#20040;Γ?#19968;方面,它有利于社会的不断进步,教育的需求不断增加;另一方面,它创造了非常强大的社会组织力量,有助于平衡社会的发展。,在数字经济时代,巨头们建立的平台要比教育、大学和图书馆更为广泛。高瞻远瞩、负责任的企业家应致力于促进科学技术的“非集中化?#20445;?#20351;互联网建设的全球大脑为每个人所用,投资资源解决虚假新闻和分层问题,使互联网促进民间社会的发展。反之亦然。,本文来自微信公众?#29275;篹oobserver,作者:吴晨(经济学人商业执行主编)。

ben wen lai zi wei xin gong zhong hao: eoobserver, zuo zhe: wu chen jing ji xue ren shang ye zhi xing zhu bian., zai guo qu de wu nian li, quan qiu hu lian wang ping tai qu de le ju da de jin bu. zi 2013 nian yi lai, Faang Facebook Amazon Apple Neifei Google he wei ruan, ji suo wei de mei guo ke ji gu ju tou, yu wei ruan yi qi, gong xian le biao zhun pu er 500 gong si zong shi zhi zeng zhang de 37. tong qi, zhong guo qi ye shi zhi shang zhang de 28 zuo you lai zi a li ba ba he teng xun zhe liang jia gong si., ran er, zi qu nian xia ban nian yi lai, da du ya de shi zhi yi jing xia die le 1. 13 wan yi mei yuan, Facebook de shi zhi ye bi qu nian 7 yue de feng zhi xia die le 30. dui hu lian wang ping tai jing ji fa zhan mo shi de si kao he tan tao ye you suo zeng jia., ba de biao qian, hu lian wang ju tou bei tie shang le badd de biao qian., BAADD shi shen me?, di yi ge shi da de. zai guo qu de ji nian li, quan qiu hu lian wang ju tou fa zhan xun su, cheng wei fu you he jing zheng dui shou de guo jia, er qie you yu wang luo xiao ying, ta men hen ke neng cheng wei ye jie de gua tou, ying jia chi guang suo you., er shi fan jing zheng. sui zhe ren gong zhi neng he da shu ju de zeng qiang, gao ke ji ju tou men fa xian le 2. ban de wang luo xiao ying. ta men ke yi tong guo cong ping tai shang dong cha ji hui lai jian li zi ji de sha shang qu. chuang xin he chuang ye de shi jian he kong jian ke neng hui bei da da ya suo he bing huo ya ru xu duo xin qi ye de ming yun zhi zhong., di san ge shi shang yin. zhe ye yin fa le ren men de yi wen, zhei xie ju tou shi zai xiang xiao fei zhe ti gong lian jia de shen zhi mian fei de fu wu, hai shi jiang xiao fei zhe bao zhuang cheng chan pin bing mai gei guang gao shang. liang zhe zhi jian de ju da cha yi ye jue ding le ju ren dui cheng yin de tai du., di si, po huai min zhu. yi ge tu chu de li zi jiu shi Facebook zai te lang pu de" e luo si zhi men" shi jian zhong suo ban yan de jue se. zhe ye shi guo qu 20 nian hu lian wang fa zhan de gong tong fan ying hu lian wang shi fou you li yu min jian she hui de fa zhan, hai shi dui min jian she hui dai lai le geng duo de wei hai?, wo men mian lin de wen ti, cong Badd de fen xi zhong, bu nan kan chu ren men dui hu lian wang ju tou you hen duo yi wen. hu lian wang ping tai jing ji mian lin de zui da tiao zhan bu shi zeng zhang wen ti, qia qia xiang fan, zheng shi yin wei ta men zhi li yu kuai su fa zhan, er bao lou chu liang da wen ti., di yi ge wen ti shi sui zhe ping tai jing ji de xing qi, yi dong hu lian wang ping tai zi ran ju you long duan xing he jing zheng yue shu xing., shou xian, ping tai jue ding ru he she ji liu cheng ru he zhi xing shi wu kong zhi yong hu jie mian he yong hu ti yan, cong er jue ding yong hu jiang huo de shen me xin xi. zhe ye yi wei zhe ping tai he ping tai ling yi duan di chan pin he fu wu ti gong shang zhi jian de yi jia neng li yue lai yue ruo., di er, shu ju jing ji ping tai ju you zi ran long duan qing xiang. zhei xie ju tou bu jin zai shi chang shang jing zheng, er qie yue lai yue cheng wei shi chang ben shen. ping tai yi cheng wei shu zi jing ji bu ke huo que de ji chu she shi. ping tai shang de xu duo fu wu si hu dou shi mian fei de, dan yong hu shi ji shang zai ti jiao shu ju shi fu fei da shu ju cheng wei ping tai fu wu de huo bi. xian zai hu lian wang ping tai yi jing zhang wo le da liang de shu ju, ru ge ren xing wei shu ju she hui tu biao ding jia xin xi gou mai xi guan deng. li ru, Facebook bu jin yong you shi jie shang zui feng fu de ge ren shu ju, er qie yong you zui da de" she jiao tu" yong hu lie biao he yong hu lian jie. ya ma xun de ding jia xin xi bi qi ta ren he gong si dou duo, mei guo chao guo 90 de zai xian sou suo shi yong gu ge., zai shou ji hai liang shu ju de tong shi, ping tai ye zai da jian zi ji de wei lan, wa jue shu zi hong gou, quan chu zi ji de da shu ju. yi tun ji da shu ju wei he xin jing zheng li de shang ye mo shi ke neng dui ping tai you li, dan bu yi ding dui she hui you li, yin wei ta bu li yu zheng ge she hui fen xiang shi yong da shu ju de hong li., di san, ju ren men zheng zai wei rao zi ji de sheng tai xi tong jian li" e sha qu". dui yu nian qing de gong si lai shuo, sheng cun ke neng fei chang kun nan. ji shu ju tou ke neng hui mo fang zhei xie chu chuang qi ye bing jiang qi ya kua, huo zhe ba ta men dai dao zi ji de kou dai li, ti qian xiao chu wei xie. you yu ya ma xun Facebook he gu ge de zhu dao di wei, ren he yu xiao fei zhe hu lian wang xiang guan de ye wu dou bei shi wei wei xian di dai. yi ge dian xing de li zi shi duan shi pin she jiao wang luo ruan jian SNAP, ta ju jue le Facebook zai 2013 nian 30 yi mei yuan de shou gou, ran hou ke long le SNAP de xu duo liu xing gong neng, zu ai le qi fa zhan., ru jin, ju tou men yi jing wei rao ge zi de ying xiang li fan wei jin xing le quan ding, zai sou suo she jiao mei ti shu zi guang gao dian zi shang wu zhi neng shou ji he zhi neng yang sheng qi yun ji suan deng fang mian, ju tou men yi jing ji ben wan cheng le bao wei. guo qu, chu chuang qi ye zai kai fa xin chan pin de guo cheng zhong ke neng hui ling xian ji nian, dan xian zai chu chuang qi ye de jiao huo qi zhi you 6 dao 12 ge yue, na me xian you qi ye jiu hui hen kuai gan shang., zong shang suo shu, zhei xie dian shi ji shang qiang diao le yi ge wen ti: ping tai shu ju liang da, ju ren da jian de ping tai yi jing cheng wei shu zi jing ji shi dai bu ke huo que de ji chu she shi. ping tai ba li run fang zai shou wei. ta men you jian li shu zi wei lan de dong ji, dan bu yi ding you cu jin shu ju gong xiang de dong ji. ta men que shi wei xiao fei zhe ti gong le geng pian yi geng hao de fu wu, dan zhan wang wei lai ke neng hui yi zhi chuang xin., di er, hu lian wang de gong gong shu xing zao dao qin shi., hu lian wang de zui chu li nian shi fen quan. er shi nian qian, ren men ren wei hu lian wang ke yi cu jin ren men de hu lian hu tong, cu jin zhi shi gong xiang he chuan bo, wa jue ji ti zhi hui, cheng wei min jian she hui zi wo zu zhi de ping tai. dan xian shi de fa zhan, te bie shi jin ji nian lai, yi jing zou xiang le xuan chuan de fan mian. zhu yao biao xian zai xu jia xin wen de fan lan jie ceng hua de jia ju yi ji gong min zai xiao fei zhe zhong de xiao shi., rang wo men cong xu jia xin wen de kuo san kai shi., jia xin wen de wen ti yi zhi cun zai, dan shi she hui mei ti jia su le ta de chuan bo. 2016 nian, e luo si li yong Facebook chuan bo xu jia xin wen ying xiang mei guo da xuan, shi geng duo ren yi shi dao xu jia xin wen de wei hai. ran er, wo men xu yao kan dao de shi, guang yi de xu jia xin wen, ji biao ti dang song ren ting wen de xin wen hun he zhe xu jia xin xi de xin xi, mu qian you shua ping de feng xian. ling yi fang mian, chuan tong mei ti yue lai yue bei bian yuan hua. zhei xie ju tou qiang zhan le da liang xin de shu zi guang gao, ru Facebook he gu ge, ta men kong zhi le mei guo san fen zhi er de zai xian guang gao shou ru, er chuan tong mei ti lai yi sheng cun de guang gao ze da fu xia jiang. zai zhe zhong qing kuang xia, you yu ti gong xin xi de men kan jiang di, yi ji she jiao mei ti ping tai wei geng duo ren ti gong le zhun que fen fa xin xi de gong ju, yin ci guang yi de xu jia xin wen ke neng hui jiang huai qian cong hao qian zhong gan zou., geng wei yan zhong de shi, chuan tong mei ti de shuai luo zheng shi hu lian wang tu zhu ren cheng zhang de shi dai. nian qing ren geng nan que ding xin xi de zhi liang, er qie ta men bu jian li dui quan wei lai yuan de xin ren. ta men de yue du xi guan yi jing gai bian, ta men geng yi lai she jiao mei ti he sou suo, ta men geng rong yi shou dao ge xing hua ying xiao de ying xiang. zhe yu qian ji nian lao nian ren mian lin de shu ju hong gou yi yang wei xian., guang yi shang de xu jia xin wen kuo san ye ke neng jia ju fen ceng. quan hua yi wei zhe mei ge ren dou yuan yi dai zai zi ji de shu shi qu, yu zi ji zhe yang de ren hu dong, bing qie mei you ji hui huo dong ji yu lai zi bu tong guo jia de ren jiao liu. yin ci, zheng ge she hui de liu dong xing da da xia jiang., shou xian, you yu chuan tong mei ti de shuai luo, chuan tong mei ti zuo wei shou men ren de jue se yi jing bei dan hua. mei ge ren dou ke yi you zi ji de xin xi fen fa qu dao. geng duo de zu zhi ke yi shi yong da shu ju he suan fa wei xiao fei zhe ti gong ding zhi de xin xi. zai" ni xu yao zhi dao de" he" ni xiang zhi dao de" zhi jian, ru guo" ni xiang zhi dao de" shi xian cheng de, hen duo ren hui fa xian hen nan zou chu ta men de shu shi qu. yan jiu fa xian, ji shi zai 20 shi ji 60 nian dai de ying guo, ren men ye hui xuan ze fu he ta men wen hua pian jian de dian shi jie mu. zai shu zi jing ji shi dai, qiang hua zhe zhong pian jian de qu shi de dao le ji da de jia qiang., qi ci, you yu que fa gong tong de jing yan, ding zhi shi de xie zuo bian de yue lai yue kun nan. he zuo de qian ti shi liao jie ta ren he bu tong ren de chu fa dian. ru guo wo men de dao xia ai de xin xi, wo men de shi ye jiu hui bian de xia ai, xia ai de ren hen nan zai yi qi gong zuo., di san, xu ni ti dai shi xian shi shi jie jiao hu de yi zhong xin xian xiang. wu lun shi zai xian gou mai gou mai hai shi xu ni tong xin, wo men dou geng rong yi huo de zai xian man yi du, dai jia shi xian shi shi jie zhong ren lei hu dong ji hui de da fu jian shao. shen zhi yi xie zhuan jia ye dan xin shu zi shi dai de tu zhu ren hui tui hua, bing zhu jian shi qu yu ren men hu dong de neng li. she jiao mei ti gei xu duo ren liu xia le xian shi shi jie de zhang ai, shen zhi shi kong ju, xu duo ren bu zai li jie ren men zai xian shi shi jie zhong shi ru he hu dong de. zhai ji di yi cheng wei yi ge quan qiu xing de hua ti. mei guo san fen zhi yi de 30 sui yi shang de nian qing ren reng ran he fu mu zhu zai yi qi, zhe shi yi ge da wen ti, ye shi yi ge xin de jie ceng., hu lian wang ju tou dui wo men zao cheng de zui da wei xie shi, gong min ke neng bi xiao fei zhe ai. zai xi fang shi jie, zhe zhong ai hua zheng zai fa sheng. shang pin he fu wu de ying xiao he zheng zhi ying xiao zheng bian de yue lai yue ju you hu cao zuo xing. mei ci xuan ju dou shi sheng ji yi dong hu lian wang gong ju de ji hui. qi zhong zui chou ming zhao zhu de shi jian qiao fen xi, ta bang zhu te lang pu shi yong Facebook de da liang shu ju xiang te ding ren qun fen fa ding zhi xin xi., shang ye ying xiao shi shang pin xiao shou, er zheng zhi ying xiao shi zheng zhi jia xiao shou. zai xun zhao qian zai xiao fei zhe he zai zheng zhi shang dong yao ren men zhi jian mei you ben zhi di qu bie, dan shi ying xiang shi shen yuan de. yi fang mian, zheng zhi jiang cheng wei yi chang yu lv you ye mei you ben zhi qu bie de ji ke yun dong, shi qu qi gen ben de yan su xing he gong gong shu xing ling yi fang mian, gong min jiang bei ruo hua wei xiao fei zhe, ta men can yu gong gong tao lun de neng li jiang bei xue ruo, ta men dui zheng zhi jia de xin ren jiang bei da da xue ruo., xiao fei zhe yi jing qu dai le gong min de jue se, cheng wei you ying xiang li de zu zi. zui ke pa de shi, gong zhong tao lun yi jing bei jing que de shi chang ying xiao suo qu dai. she jiao mei ti yi jing cheng wei yi cheng zhi ding zhe de yi ge cheng shu gong ju, mei ge ren dou ke yi shi yong., wo men bu neng hu shi ping tai jing ji de" gong gong shu xing". wei lai, ju ren xu yao zai ping tai de fa zhan he ping tai de gong gong shu xing zhi jian zhao dao yi ge ping heng dian, yin wei wu lun shi xiao fei zhe hai shi zheng fu dou bu neng zuo shi ping tai zai mei you ren he jian guan de qing kuang xia cheng zhang., ru he jie jue zhe ge wen ti, ju ren shi fou zai 20 nian nei jing li le ling yi ge" xi wang ao man shuai bai" de zhou qi? xi wang shi chuang ye chu qi de li xiang zhuang tai, dan zi da shi bu qie shi ji de, zai shang ye shang qu de ju da cheng gong hou tuo li le xian shi., hu lian wang fa zhan de li shi biao ming, yi kao ji shu ben shen bing bu neng jie jue ji shu gei shang ye she hui he gong min she hui dai lai de yi xi lie wen ti. dan shi, xian zai quan qiu hu lian wang ju tou yi jing zu gou fu you, zu yi cheng wei di ren, ru guo ta men neng gou kai shi jie shou" gong gong jing shen", ta men ke neng hui jie shu. you qi shi dang ping tai ri yi cheng wei shu zi jing ji zhong bu ke huo que de ji chu she shi shi, li yi qu dong shi bu gou de, ping tai xu yao yi zhong gong gong jing shen., zhe zhong gong gong jing shen ti xian zai si ge fang mian:, shou xian, wo men ying gai zhi li yu wei lai de chuang xin he tu po xing de yan fa, er bu jin jin shi jia qiang zi shen de jing zheng shi li he wei lai de ying li neng li yan fa. zhe zhong gong gong jing shen shi ji shang cun zai yu 50 nian qian de mei guo, wu lun shi IBM hai shi AT., qi ci, wo men ying gai zhi li yu tan suo xin de si lu he chuang xin lai jie jue wen ti, er bu shi jian dan di ti gao jie jue xian you wen ti de xiao lv, zhe ye shi ping tai he da shu ju mian lin de tiao zhan. da gong si ke yi geng gao xiao geng kuai di wan cheng xian you gong zuo, dan bu yi ding neng geng hao di jie jue wen ti. li ru, wu lun ni shi bu xing hai shi bu xing, ni dou ke yi geng you xiao di jie jue lv you pi pei wen ti, dan shi ta hai mei you jie jue dai cheng shi de yong ji wen ti., geng zhong yao de shi, wo men ying gai jian chi kai fang gong xiang hu lian wang de jing shen, er bu shi jian she mei li de shu zi hua yuan. zai shu zi jing ji de wei lai, wo men bi xu gong xiang da shu ju, gu li chuang xin. zhe xu yao ju tou men zhao dao yi zhong jian li da shu ju gong xiang he jiao yi de fang fa, ta men bu ying gai hai pa wei wei lai de tiao zhan zhe mai xia zhong zi., zui hou, wo men ying gai zhi li yu she hui zi ben he ren li zi ben de zui da hua, er bu jin jin shi li run. hu lian wang ju tou de gong gong shu xing he lian jie shu xing shi ta men neng gou geng hao di li yong she hui zi ben, pei yang ren li zi ben. ta men xiang qu xiang chang qing ji jin hui, bu jin nu li shi zi ji de qi ye cheng wei bai nian lao dian, geng yao you geng gao de bao fu ru he shi she hui geng mei hao., wei lai huan xu yao jia qiang jian guan. zui zhong yao de shi wei da shu ju de shi yong jiao huan he gong xiang jian li gong kai tou ming de gui ze., shou xian, wei le bao hu ge ren yin si, wo men xu yao zhu yi shu ju de wan zheng xing. shui yong you shu ju, shui ke yi shi yong shu ju, zai shen me fan wei nei ke yi gong xiang duo shao shu ju, suo you zhei xie dou xu yao tao lun, ran hou zhi ding kai fang he tou ming de gui ze., jian guan ji gou xu yao nu li jian li da shu ju jiao huan, bang zhu da shu ju que ren dian li jia ge he mao yi, da po ju xing shu zi hua yuan de zhang ai, bing wei chu chuang qi ye ti gong gong ping jing zheng de huan jing. wei lai ren gong zhi neng de jing zheng zhu yao shi da shu ju de jing zheng. ru guo da shu ju neng gou zai he gui de qian ti xia gong kai gong xiang, jiang you zhu yu da po shu zi jing ji shi dai ju tou de long duan., zui hou, yao nu li tui jin si xiang shi chang jian she. qu nian, nuo bei er jiang de zhu luo mo ti chu, ren li zi ben he xin si xiang shi wei lai jing ji fa zhan de dong li. zai shu zi jing ji shi dai, wu xing zi chan yue lai yue zhong yao, xin guan nian shi zui zhong yao de wu xing si you cai chan. gou jian kai fang duo yuan de" yi shi xing tai shi chang", ke yi cu jin wu xing zi chan de jiao liu he zuo he jiao yi. ta de zuo yong shi shuang chong de: yi fang mian gu li kai fang chuang xin, shi lai zi bu tong ling yu bu tong zhuan ye bei jing de si xiang guan nian xiang hu peng zhuang xiang hu ji li ling yi fang mian gu li bao hu wu xing zi chan chan quan, tong guo shi chang jiao yi wa jue wu xing zi chan de jia ge. bing tong guo jiao yi ji yu wu xing zi chan chuang zao zhe zu gou de ji li., ju ren ying gai zen me zuo? wo men jin tian xu yao de bu jin shi cong ming de guan li zhe, er qie shi you yuan jian de qi ye jia., you yu ping tai shi shu zi jing ji di ceng bu ke huo que de ji chu she shi, ta bi xu ju you gong gong shu xing. ju you yuan jian zhuo shi he ze ren gan de da ling dao ren fu ze can yu he tui dong xi tong she ji, yi que bao shu zi jing ji de chang qi fa zhan, er bu jin jin shi bao hu duan qi li yi mo shi., ta men ke yi wei 100 nian qian du jin shi dai de ju ren shu li bang yang. ka nei ji he ta suo dai biao de du jin shi dai de da heng zui yuan yi juan qian gei tu shu guan he da xue. cong ben zhi shang jiang, zhe zhong fang fa you liang ge hao chu: yi fang mian, ta you li yu she hui de bu duan jin bu, jiao yu de xu qiu bu duan zeng jia ling yi fang mian, ta chuang zao le fei chang qiang da de she hui zu zhi li liang, you zhu yu ping heng she hui de fa zhan., zai shu zi jing ji shi dai, ju tou men jian li de ping tai yao bi jiao yu da xue he tu shu guan geng wei guang fan. gao zhan yuan zhu fu ze ren de qi ye jia ying zhi li yu cu jin ke xue ji shu de" fei ji zhong hua", shi hu lian wang jian she de quan qiu da nao wei mei ge ren suo yong, tou zi zi yuan jie jue xu jia xin wen he fen ceng wen ti, shi hu lian wang cu jin min jian she hui de fa zhan. fan zhi yi ran., ben wen lai zi wei xin gong zhong hao: eoobserver, zuo zhe: wu chen jing ji xue ren shang ye zhi xing zhu bian.

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